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Explore the concepts and methods behind the CRVA process and understand how it can be applied to local, regional and national levels in the Central Asia region.  Get insight on how to bridge climate exposure and risk with meaningful, actionable adaptation interventions. 

CRVA Terms and Definitions


The process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects. In human systems, adaptation seeks to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. In some natural systems, human intervention may facilitate adjustment to expected climate and its effects.

Adaptive Capacity

The ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences.


Severe alterations in the normal functioning of a community or a society due to hazardous physical events interacting with vulnerable social conditions, leading to widespread adverse human, material, economic or environmental effects that require immediate emergency response to satisfy critical human needs and that may require external support for recovery.


Exposure is the only one component of the vulnerability assessment directly linked to climate parameters, that is, the character, magnitude, and rate of change and variation in the climate. Typical exposure factors include temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration and climatic water balance, as well as extreme events such as heavy rain and meteorological drought.


The potential occurrence of a natural or human-induced physical event or trend or physical impact that may cause loss of life, injury, or other health impacts, as well as damage and loss to property, infrastructure, livelihood, service provision, ecosystems, and environmental resources. In terms of climate change hazard usually refers to climate-related physical events or trends or their physical impacts.


Effects on natural and human systems of extreme weather and climate events and of climate change. Impacts generally refer to effects on lives, livelihood, health, ecosystems, economies, societies, cultures, services, and infrastructure due to the interaction of climate changes or hazardous climate events occurring within a specific time period and the vulnerability of an exposed society or system.


The capacity of social, economic, and environmental systems to cope with a hazardous event or trend or disturbance, responding or reorganising in ways that maintain their essential function, identity, and structure, while also maintaining the capacity for adaptation, learning, and transformation.


The potential for consequences where something of value is at stake and where the outcome is uncertain, recognizing the diversity of values. Risk is often represented as probability of occurrence of hazardous events or trends multiplied by the impacts if these events or trends occur. Risk results from the interaction of vulnerability, exposure, and hazard.


The degree to which a system is adversely or beneficially affected by a given climate change exposure. Sensitivity is typically shaped by natural and/or physical attributes of the system including topography, the capacity of different soil types to resist erosion, land cover type. But it also refers to human activities which affect the physical constitution of a system, such as tillage systems, water management, resource depletion and population pressure. As most systems have been adapted to the current climate (e.g. construction of dams and dikes, irrigation systems), sensitivity already includes historic and recent adaptation. Societal factors such as population density should only be regarded as sensitivities if they contribute directly to a specific climate (change) impact.


A change in the fundamental attributes of natural and human systems. Within this summary, transformation could reflect strengthened, altered, or aligned paradigms, goals, or values towards promoting adaptation for sustainable development, including poverty reduction.


The degree to which a system is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity.